Rifles & ammunition

loading rifle bullet

Legal limitations

For the killing or taking of deer in Scotland, firearms, ammunition and sights must conform to requirements, laid down in the Deer (Firearms etc.)(Scotland) Order1985. These are stated as follows:

  • Rifles:
Deer Species Min Bullet Weight Min Muzzle Velocity Min Muzzle Energy
for all species 100grains (6.48grams) 2,450 ft/sec
(746.76 mtrs/sec)
1,750 foot pounds
(2,373 joules)
for Roe only 50grains (3.24grams) 2,450 ft/sec
(746.76 mtrs/sec)
1,000 foot pounds
(1,356 joules)

NB. Ensure that all three minimum conditions are met for your chosen calibre of rifle

  • Rifle bullets should be of an expanding type designed to deform in a predictable manner.
  • For Shotguns
    Use is limited to certain circumstance1 and must be of not less than 12 bore gauge
Deer SpeciesNon spherical rifled slugShot sizeWeight of shot
for all species380 grains(24.62 g)SSG ie no less that 0.268 inches (6.81 mm) in diameterat least 550 grains (35.64 g)
for Roe only 380 grains(24.62 g)AAA ie no less that 0.203 inches (5.16 mm) in diameterat least 450 grains (29.16 g)
  • It is lawful to use a slaughtering instrument using any ammunition intended for use in it. A ‘slaughtering instrument’ is a firearm specifically designed or adapted for the instantaneous slaughter of animals or for the instantaneous stunning of animals with a view to slaughtering them. Such an instrument may be appropriate for use in capture for culling operations.
  • Any firearm or other method of humane dispatch may be used to prevent suffering to injured or wounded deer.
  • It is illegal to use sights that are:
    • Light intensifying,
    • Heat sensitive, or
    • Other special sighting devices for night shooting

Legal Implications

  • Section 17(3) Deer Act (Scotland) 1996 makes it an offence to wilfully kill or injure any deer other than by shooting with an approved firearm and ammunition.
  • Section 19 Firearms Act (1968): Carrying firearm in a public place:
    A person commits and offence if, without lawful authority or reasonable excuse (the proof whereof lies with him) he has with him in a public place:
    • a loaded shotgun
    • an air weapon (whether loaded or not)
    • any other firearm together with ammunition suitable for use in that firearm
    • an imitation firearm.
  • Section 20 Firearms Act (1968): Trespass with firearm:
    If you trespass in a building or on land with a firearm, or imitation firearm, and cannot prove a reasonable excuse, you commit an offence.
  • Part 1 Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 establishes access rights that must be exercised responsibly. The Scottish Outdoor Access Code (SOAC) provides guidance on responsibilities.
    SOAC includes activities that are excluded from access rights. Section 2.12 includes carrying of any firearm, except where.. crossing land.. to immediately access or return from land where shooting rights are granted.

In addition, there may be a risk of offences around Reckless Discharge1, Breach of the Peace/Fear and Alarm2 and Causing Unnecessary Suffering3

Ref: BPG Deer In and Around Towns, Guidance on Responding to Situations.

Why use expanding ammunition?

(top) solid ammunition produces little transfer of energy with minimal heart damage; whilst expanding ammunition (below), results in good
transfer of energy and ensures the heart is destroyed

The severity of a bullet wound is directly related to damage caused by the path of the bullet and the amount of kinetic energy that is transferred from the bullet to the tissues of the body.

Expanding bullets suitable for deer are designed to deform in a predictable manner, and concentrate their destructive energy in the vital organs, following an accurately placed shot.

Expanding bullets deform faster at higher impact velocity and deform less at lower velocity. This results in much less tissue destruction at longer distances where the velocity is lower.

an expanding bullet causes an outer ‘balloon’ area, representing the temporary cavity, whilst the central core represents the permanent cavity

In the diagram the permanent cavity represents the shape or wound profile of tissue destroyed by expanding ammunition.

The temporary cavity relates to tissue reacting elastically. This tissue recovers after the bullet has passed.

The contribution of shock (temporary damage) to death is through the nervous system. It brings about unconsciousness until the blood loss from the permanent damage renders the beast dead.

Wound tracts

Plaster casts of permanent wound tract tracts. The same rifle/ammunition was used to produce both wound tract 1 (above) and 2 (below)

When a bullet is fired into ballistic soap the cavity produced is directly comparable with the tissue destroyed by that bullet. This represents the permanent cavity. The cavity or wound tract can be better visualised if filled with plaster, this allows comparison of the effectiveness of bullet types and calibres at different ranges.

wound tract 2

Ballistic tables

Ballistic tables will ensure you are aware of the technical capabilities of your rifle ammunition combination. These tables can be generated either by using the information provided on the manufacturer’s box or through the use of commercially available ballistic software.